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TED演讲:两种制度的传说

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  因为每一个个人都是理性的,一旦有了权选举,必然会选出好政府,随后就可以在好政府的领导下,过上幸福的生活,相当于实现大同社会——又是一个人间天堂。以下大香蕉伊人网小编整理的TED演讲:两种制度的传说,供大家参考,希望大家能够有所收获!

TED演讲 两种制度的传说

  李:早上好!我叫(Eric Li)李世默,我出生在这里(图示:高楼大厦林立,街道上星光灿烂的上海),喔,不,不是这里,是这里,我出生在“文化大革命”高潮时的上海(图示:文革期间红卫兵游行的场面)。外婆后来告诉我,她当时抱着襁褓之中啼哭不止的我,心惊胆战地听着“武斗”的枪声。

  Good morning. My name is Eric Li, and I was born here. But no, I wasn’t born there. This was where I was born: Shanghai, at the height of the Cultural Revolution. My grandmother tells me that she heard the sound of gunfire along with my first cries.

  在我少年时,我被灌输了一个关于人类社会发展规律的大故事,这个“元叙事”是这样说的:

  When I was growing up, I was told a story that explained all I ever needed to know that humanity. It went like this.

  所有的人类社会都遵循一条线性的目标明确的发展规律,即从原始社会开始,经由奴隶社会、封建社会、资本主义社会、社会主义社会,最终过渡到(我们猜猜这个终点是什么?)共产主义社会。

  All human societies develop in linear progression, beginning with primitive society, then slave society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism, and finally, (guess where we end up?) Communism!

  共产主义社会是人类政治、社会发展的最高阶段,所有的人类社会,不管民族、文化、语言有何异同,或早或晚都将演绎到这一阶段。人类社会从此大同,彼此相亲相爱,永远过着幸福的生活——人间天堂。

  Sooner or later, all of humanity, regardless of culture, language, nationality, will arrive at this final stage of political and social development. The entire world’s peoples will be unified in this paradise on earth and live happily ever after.

  但在实现这样目标之前,我们必须投身于正义与邪恶的斗争,即正义的社会主义与邪恶的资本主义之间的斗争,正义终将胜利!

  But before we get there, we’re engaged in a struggle between good and evil, the good of socialism against the evil of capitalism, and the good shall triumph.

  当然,这就是从马克思主义发展而来的社会发展阶段论,这一“元叙事”在中国影响甚广。我们从小就被反复灌输了这个宏大故事,几乎融化到了血液之中,笃信不疑。这个“元叙事”不仅征服了中国,也影响了全世界。世界上曾经有整整三分之一人在它笼罩之下。然而,忽然一夜之间,苏联崩溃,世界沧桑巨变。我赴美留学,改宗成为伯克利的嬉皮士,哈哈!


TED演讲 两种制度的传说

  That, of course, was the meta-narrative distilled from the theories of Karl Marx. And the Chinese bought it. We were taught that grand story day in and day out. It became part of us, and we believed in it. The story was a bestseller. About on third of the entire world’s population lived under that meta narrative. Then, the world changed overnight. As for me, disillusioned by the failed religion of my youth, I went to America and became a Berkeley hippie.

  就这样,开启了我另一段成年经历,我又被灌输了一个全新的宏大叙事,仿佛我这辈子只经历那一个还不够似的。这个宏大叙事的完美程度与早前的那一个不分伯仲。它同样宣称,人类社会遵循着一个线性的发展规律,指向一个终极目标。叙事故事是这样展开的:

  Now, as I was coming of ageu>, something else happened. As if one big story wasn’t enough, I was told another one. This one was just as grand. It also claims that all human societies develop in a linear progression towards a singular end. This one went as follows.

  所有的人类社会,不论其文化有何异同,其民众是基督徒、穆斯林还是儒家信徒,都将从传统社会过渡到现代社会。在传统社会中,最基本的社会单位是家庭、氏族、部落等群体;而在现代社会中,最基本的、神圣不可侵犯的社会单位是原子化的个人。所有的个人都被认定为是理性的,都有同一个诉求:选举权!

  All societies, regardless of culture, be it Christian, Muslim, Confucian, must progress from traditional societies in which groups are the basic units to modern societies in which atomized individuals are the sovereign units, and all these individuals are, by definition, rational, and they all want one thing: the vote.

  因为每一个个人都是理性的,一旦有了权选举,必然会选出好政府,随后就可以在好政府的领导下,过上幸福的生活,相当于实现大同社会——又是一个人间天堂。

  Because they all rational, once given the vote, they produce good government and live happily ever after. Paradise on earth, again.

  选举民主制将成为所有国家和民族唯一的政治制度,再加上一个自由放任的市场让他们发财。当然,在实现这个目标之前,我们必须投身于正义与邪恶的斗争,即正义的民主与邪恶的不民主之间的斗争。

  Sooner or later, electoral democracy will be the only political system for all countries and all peoples, with a free market to make them all rich. But before we get there, we’re engaged in a struggle between good and evil.

  前者肩负着在全世界推动民主的使命,必要时甚至可以动用武力,来打击那些不投票不选举的邪恶势力。(老布什、小布什、奥巴马对自由、民主和选举的发言)上述宏大叙事同样传播甚广。根据“自由之家”的统计,全世界采用选举民主制的国家,从1970年的45个已增至2010年的115个。近20多年来,西方的精英人士孜孜不倦地在全世界奔走,推荐选举民主这一救世良方。

  The good belongs to those who are democracies and are charged with a mission of spreading it around the globe, sometimes by force, against the evil of those who do not hold elections.(。。。) Now. This story also became a bestseller. According to the Freedom House, the number of democracies went from 45 in 1970 to 115 in 2010. In the last 20years, Western elites tirelessly trotted around the globe selling this prospectus.

  他们声称,实行多党制和全民选举是拯救发展中国家于水火的唯一良药,只要吃下它,就一定会实现繁荣,否则,永无翻身之日。但这一次,中国敬谢不敏。我又被愚弄了一把。。。

  Multiple parties fight for political power and everyone voting on them is the only path to salvation to the long-suffering developing world. Those who buy the prospectus are destined for success. Those who do not are doomed to fail. But this time, the Chinese didn’t buy it. Fool me once… (Laughter)(Applause)

  历史是最好的裁判。仅仅30多年间,中国就从世界上最贫困的农业国,一跃而为世界第二大经济体,实现6.5亿人脱贫。

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